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井式炉的硬度检测标准有三大类,分别为维氏、洛氏和表面洛氏三种硬度值。根据热处理方式的同,表面淬火回火热处理炉和化学热处理炉其硬度检验方法也是不一样的。
There are three types of hardness testing standards for well furnace, including Vickers, Rockwell and surface Rockwell. According to the same way of heat treatment, the hardness test methods of surface quenching reheating heat treatment furnace and chemical heat treatment furnace are also different.
化学热处理工件的主要技术参数是硬化层和表面硬度。硬化层还是要用维氏硬度计来检测。检测从工件表面到硬度降到50HRC那一点的距离。这就是硬化。
The main technical parameters of chemical heat treatment workpiece are hardening layer and surface hardness. The hardened layer shall be tested by Vickers hardness tester. Check the distance from the workpiece surface to the point where the hardness drops to 50HRC. This is hardening.
化学热处理是使工件表面渗入一种或几种化学元素的原子,从而改变工件表面的化学成分、组织和性能。经淬火和低温回火后,工件表面具有高的硬度、耐磨性和接触疲劳强度,而工件的芯部又具有高的强韧性。
Chemical heat treatment is to infiltrate one or more atoms of chemical elements into the workpiece surface, so as to change the chemical composition, structure and properties of the workpiece surface. After quenching and low-temperature tempering, the surface of the workpiece has high hardness, wear resistance and contact fatigue strength, while the core of the workpiece has high strength and toughness.
化学热处理工件的表面硬度检测与表面淬火热处理工件的硬度检测相近,都可以用维氏硬度计、表面洛氏硬度计或洛氏硬度计来检测,只是渗氮厚的厚度较薄,一般不大于0.7mm,这时就不能再采用洛氏硬度计了。
The surface hardness test of chemical heat treatment workpiece is similar to that of surface quenching heat treatment workpiece. Vickers hardness tester, surface Rockwell hardness tester or Rockwell hardness tester can be used to test, but the thickness of nitriding thickness is thin, generally no more than 0.7mm. At this time, Rockwell hardness tester can no longer be used.
零件如果局部硬度要求较高,可用感应加热等方式进行局部淬火热处理,这样的零件通常要在图纸上标出局部淬火热处理的位置和局部硬度值。零件的硬度检测要在指定区域内进行。硬度检测仪器可采用洛氏硬度计,测试HRC硬度值,如热处理硬化层较浅,可采用表面洛氏硬度计,测试HRN硬度值。
If the local hardness requirements of parts are high, local quenching heat treatment can be carried out by means of induction heating. For such parts, the location of local quenching heat treatment and local hardness value shall be marked on the drawing. The hardness test of parts shall be carried out in the designated area. The hardness testing instrument can use Rockwell hardness tester to test the HRC hardness value. If the heat treatment hardened layer is shallow, the surface Rockwell hardness tester can be used to test the hrn hardness value.
井式炉表面淬火回火热处理通常用感应加热或火焰加热的方式进行。主要技术参数是表面硬度、局部硬度和硬化层。硬度检测可采用维氏硬度计,也可采用洛氏或表面洛氏硬度计。试验力(标尺)的选择与硬化层和工件表面硬度有关。这里涉及到三种硬度计。
The surface quenching and reheating heat treatment of well furnace is usually carried out by induction heating or flame heating. The main technical parameters are surface hardness, local hardness and hardened layer. Vickers hardness tester, Rockwell or surface Rockwell hardness tester can be used for hardness testing. The selection of test force (scale) is related to the hardness of hardened layer and workpiece surface. There are three kinds of durometer involved here.
维氏硬度计是测试热处理工件表面硬度的重要手段,它可选用0.5~100kg的试验力,测试薄至0.05mm厚的表面硬化层,它的精度是高的,可分辨出工件表面硬度的微小差别。另外,硬化层也要由维氏硬度计来检测,所以,对于进行表面热处理加工或大量使用表面热处理工件的单位,配备一台维氏硬度计是有必要的。
Vickers hardness tester is an important means to test the surface hardness of heat-treated workpiece. It can use the test force of 0.5 ~ 100kg to test the surface hardened layer as thin as 0.05mm. Its accuracy is high and can distinguish the small difference of workpiece surface hardness. In addition, the hardened layer should also be tested by Vickers hardness tester. Therefore, it is necessary to equip a Vickers hardness tester for units that conduct surface heat treatment or use surface heat treatment workpieces in large quantities.
表面洛氏硬度计也是十分适于测试表面淬火工件硬度的,表面洛氏硬度计有三种标尺可以选择。可以测试硬化深超过0.1mm的各种表面硬化工件。尽管表面洛氏硬度计的精度没有维氏硬度计高,但是作为热处理工厂质量管理和合格检查的检测手段,已经能够满足要求。况且它还具有操作简单、使用方便、价格较低,测量迅速、可直接读取硬度值等特点,利用表面洛氏硬度计可对成批的表面热处理工件进行快速无损的逐件检测。这一点对于金属加工和机械制造工厂具有重要意义。
The surface Rockwell hardness tester is also very suitable for testing the hardness of surface hardened workpieces. There are three scales for the surface Rockwell hardness tester. It can test various surface hardened workpieces with hardening depth of more than 0.1mm. Although the accuracy of the surface Rockwell hardness tester is not as high as that of the Vickers hardness tester, it can meet the requirements as a testing means for quality management and qualification inspection of the heat treatment plant. Moreover, it also has the characteristics of simple operation, convenient use, low price, rapid measurement and direct reading of hardness value. The surface Rockwell hardness tester can be used to quickly and nondestructive test the surface heat treated workpieces in batches one by one. This is of great significance for metal processing and machinery manufacturing factories.
当井式炉表面热处理硬化层较厚时,也可采用洛氏硬度计。当硬化层厚度在0.4~0.8mm时,可采用HRA标尺,当硬化层厚度超过0.8mm时,可采用HRC标尺。
Rockwell hardness tester can also be used when the surface heat treatment hardening layer of well furnace is thick. When the thickness of the hardened layer is 0.4 ~ 0.8mm, HRA scale can be used. When the thickness of the hardened layer exceeds 0.8mm, HRC scale can be used.
维氏、洛氏和表面洛氏三种硬度值可以方便地进行相互换算,转换成标准、图纸或用户需要的硬度值。相应的换算表在国际标准ISO、美国标准ASTM和中国标准GB/T中都已给出。
Vickers, Rockwell and surface Rockwell hardness values can be easily converted into standards, drawings or hardness values required by users. The corresponding conversion tables have been given in international standard ISO, American Standard ASTM and Chinese standard GB / T.
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