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 电炉七种常用退火热处理工艺

在退火热处理的工业生产中,退火工艺的使用比较广泛,根据工件退火的目的不一样,退火工艺存在些许区别,常用的有完全退火、球化退火、和去应力退火等。
In the industrial production of annealing heat treatment, the annealing process is widely used. According to the different purposes of workpiece annealing, there are some differences in the annealing process, such as complete annealing, spheroidizing annealing, stress relief annealing and so on.
1、完全退火
1. Complete annealing
用以细化中、低碳钢经锻造、锻压和焊接后呈现的力学功能欠安的粗大过热安排。将工件加热到铁素体全部改变为奥氏体的温度以上30~50℃,保温一段时刻,然后随炉缓慢冷却,在冷却过程中奥氏体再次发生改变,即可使钢的安排变细。
It is used to refine the coarse overheating arrangement with poor mechanical function of medium and low carbon steel after forging, forging and welding. Heat the workpiece to 30 ~ 50 ℃ above the temperature at which all ferrite changes to austenite, keep it for a period of time, and then cool it slowly with the furnace. In the cooling process, austenite changes again, which can make the arrangement of steel thinner.
2、球化退火
2. Spheroidizing annealing
用以下降工具钢和轴承钢锻压后的偏高硬度。将工件加热到钢开端构成奥氏体的温度以上20~40℃,保温后缓慢冷却,在冷却过程中珠光体中的片层状渗碳体变为球状,然后下降了硬度。
Use the following to reduce the high hardness of tool steel and bearing steel after forging. The workpiece is heated to 20 ~ 40 ℃ above the temperature at which the steel begins to form austenite, and then cooled slowly after holding. During the cooling process, the lamellar cementite in pearlite becomes spherical, and then the hardness decreases.
3、等温退火。用以下降某些镍、铬含量较高的合金构造钢的高硬度,以进行切削加工。通常先以较快速度冷却到奥氏体不安稳的温度,保温恰当时刻,奥氏体改变为托氏体或索氏体,硬度即可下降。
3. Isothermal annealing. Use the following to reduce the high hardness of some alloy structural steels with high nickel and chromium content for cutting. Usually, it is cooled to the unstable temperature of austenite at a faster speed. At the appropriate time of heat preservation, the austenite changes to troostite or sorbite, and the hardness can be reduced.
4、再结晶退火
4. Recrystallization annealing
用以消金属线材、薄板在冷拔、冷轧过程中的硬化景象(硬度增加、塑性下降)。加热温度通常为钢开端构成奥氏体的温度以下50~150℃,只要这么才干除加工硬化效应使金属化。
It is used to eliminate the hardening phenomenon of metal wire and sheet in the process of cold drawing and cold rolling (hardness increase and plasticity decrease). The heating temperature is usually 50 ~ 150 ℃ below the temperature at which the steel begins to form austenite. Only in this way can metallization be achieved in addition to the work hardening effect.
5、石墨化退火
5. Graphitization annealing
用以使含有很多渗碳体的铸铁成为塑性杰出的可锻铸铁。技术操作是将铸件加热到950℃摆布,保温必定时刻后恰当冷却,使渗碳体分化构成团絮状石墨。
It is used to make cast iron containing a lot of cementite into malleable cast iron with excellent plasticity. The technical operation is to heat the casting to 950 ℃ and properly cool it after holding for a certain time, so as to divide the cementite into flocculent graphite.
6、分散退火
6. Dispersion annealing
用以使合金铸件化学成分均匀化,进步其使用功能。办法是在不发生熔化的前提下,将铸件加热到尽可能高的温度,并长时刻保温,待合金中各种元素分散趋于均匀分布后缓冷。
It is used to homogenize the chemical composition of alloy castings and improve their use function. The method is to heat the casting to the highest temperature possible without melting, keep it warm for a long time, and cool it slowly after various elements in the alloy disperse and tend to be evenly distributed.
7、去应力退火
7. Stress relief annealing
用以钢铁铸件和焊接件的内应力。关于钢铁成品加热后开端构成奥氏体的温度以下100~200℃,保温后在空气中冷却,即可消内应力。
It is used to the internal stress of steel castings and weldments. The temperature of austenite formed at the beginning of steel products after heating is 100 ~ 200 ℃ below the temperature, and the internal stress can be eliminated by cooling in the air after heat preservation.
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